This tutorial covers the errors in measurement from revenue meters due to the presence of harmonics at the metering point. The cause is the lack of adequate requirements or tests catering for non-sinusoidal conditions in most present meter specifications. Consequently meters can comply with specifications and yet give incorrect readings in the presence of harmonics.
The tutorial presents a practical example illustrating the problem, followed by a discussion on whether revenue meters should include harmonic energy or not. The tutorial then reviews power definition models and meter specifications and tests to identify harmonic power components. The definitions in the IEEE-1459 model were applied in a commercial Smart Meter by modifying the meter’s firmware, and the reprogrammed meter was tested against harmonics tests in the OIML R46 and IEC 62053-24 specifications. Finally, several reprogrammed meters were installed in the field for a year to determine the impact of the fundamental-only power definitions on meter readings and bills for various customers. The tutorial will conclude with a live demonstration of the reprogrammed meter applied to linear and nonlinear loads.