Special Session 11

Healthcare in Smart Cities



The increased healthcare population demands mainly in the countries impacted by the aging population requires the development and implementation of new sensing and instrumentation for environments that support daily activities of the human users. Electronic health (e-Health), mobile health (m-Health) solutions may be nowadays improved and augmented in the context of smart cities developments. The use of smart instrumentation and Internet of Things (IoT) for health services and city services may have enormous potential for services optimization and the creation of new user centered services based on instrumented environments.

The aim of this special session is to explore recent advances in modern instrumentation and measurements for healthcare in smart cities and to identify the challenges and opportunities that this research areas will face in the near future. An important progress in e-Health or m-Health may be tailoring environments such as homes, physical rehabilitation clinics, nurse houses to the user needs through instrumented daily used objects. The remote monitoring of patients, the physical rehabilitation based on virtual and augmented reality environments are examples in which distributed sensing and instrumentation, IoT could contribute to reduce the costs of healthcare systems and also to improve the quality of life of patients. The aim of this special session is to provide a wide overview of the present state-of-art about e-Health or m-Health technologies that may provide quality based healthcare in smart cities. Prospective authors are invited to submit original technical papers dealing with research related to the following topics (but not limited to):

  • Instrumentation in smart home
  • Tailored environments for physical therapy
  • Instrumentation for ambient assisted living
  • Sensors and instrumentation for e-health and  m-health
  • Wearable devices for smart-health (s-health)
  • s-health and ambient assisted living
  • Instrumented objects for smart environments
  • Wireless sensors network for smart healthcare
  • Serious for healthcare based on virtual reality and augmented reality
  • Interoperability between m-health, s-health and smart environments
  • IoT and  Cloud infrastructures for smart environments and smart healthcare


Organizer and Contact Information

Dr. Octavian Postolache, IEEE IMS TC-13 chair, Instituto Universitario de Lisboa, ISCTE-IUL and Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Lisbon, Portugal (opostolache@lx.it.pt)

Invited Presentation


A Wearable Multimode Sensors System for Lower Limb Activity Evaluation and Rehabilitation



Abstract - A novel wearable multimode system for lower limb activity evaluation and rehabilitation comprised of a multi- functional band, plantar pressure distribution sensor and a local mobile terminal connected to a cloud platform is presented. By using proposed system, the therapists can distribute the specific plans based on the evaluation results through the Internet for the patients to rehabilitate more efficiently. Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and physiological signal front ends with carbonized foam electrode are embedded in the proposed system to obtain motion signals and electromyogram (EMG) signal. Furthermore, a novel plantar pressure distribution sensor using flexible pressure sensors, flexible conductive lines and fabric materials is proposed to get the plantar pressure distribution. Experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed system. The proposed system shows a potential in home-based scenarios and clinical practice.


In clinical practice, the traditional evaluation tests for  balance and walking capacity focus on the lower limb activity rehabilitation and evaluation are hospital-based,  so  it’s  hard for the patients to do exercise in home-based scenarios. In this study, a multimode system is proposed, which is a wearable sensor system for the lower limb evaluation and rehabilitation. The system includes a multifunctional band, a novel plantar pressure distribution sensor and a  mobile terminal  connected to cloud platform. The unobtrusive and wearable front end for the data collection, management and transmission enable the system to be used under home-based circumstances.


In this system, plantar pressure distribution are collected by a novel designed flexible plantar pressure distribution sensor, EMG signals are collected by physiological signal front ends with a novel carbonized foam electrode and motion signals are collected by inertial measurement unit (IMU) module. The application of evaluation and rehabilitation is also designed. Prototype of proposed wearable multimode system is shown in Fig. 1.

The collected data are transmitted to the local mobile terminal. The software displays the lower limb parameters and rehabilitation instructions for patients to rehabilitate. Therapists can acquire three important evaluation parameters: joint Range of Motion (ROM), myodynamia and the  balance  ability through the system.


Experiments show the system can capture the plantar pressure distribution data, measure whether a certain muscle or a muscle group is active when a patient does a specific motion and detect the ankle mobility.


In this paper, a novel wearable multimode system using soft sensors for lower limbs activity evaluation and rehabilitation system with flexibility and modularity is proposed. The novel soft carbonized foam electrodes and a novel flexible plantar pressure distribution sensor are embedded in this system. All the sensors and electrodes are all unobtrusive for the patients’ daily life. The multimode design of this system can also make the system suit for different patients.

More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the performance  of the algorithms, system endurance and sensibility under different rehabilitation circumstances.


  1. Smith M. World Health Organization : International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health// Disability Development. 2013:1123-1141.
  2. Chen H, Zhao Y, Mei Z, et al. Characterization of a Novel Carbonized Foam Electrode for Wearable Bio-potential Recording [C]// IEEE, International Conference on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks. IEEE, 2018. , in press.